SUDAN is located in the northeastern part of Africa between the 22.4 latitude northern equator and 38.22 longitude. The country occupies the middle part between Africa and the Arab world. Such a location distinguishes Sudan with a unique characteristic considering it the main passage for the pilgrim and trade convoys that forward from the east of Africa to the Holy Land until the mid of the current century.
Total area of the Sudan is (about 1,882,000 km square) which makes it one of the largest African countries and it comes sixteenth among the largest countries of the world. Sudan is the third largest Arab country and the second African’s. The following countries neighbor Sudan: Egypt, Libya, Eritrea, Chad, Central Africa, Ethiopia, and South Sudan
Tropical climate, which is characterized by increase of heat degrees on most days of a year, being very dry in the far north then graduates to be semi-wet in the far south, prevails in Sudan. Annual rain rates range from almost zero in the far north to 500mm in the central Sudan to more than 1000mm in the far south Sudan. The River Nile, including all its various branch, plays an important role in the Sudan’s economic, social and cultural life and in its various branches is utilized in generating electricity form dams of Al-Rosaries, Sinnar Khashm Al-Girba and Jabal Awliaa as well as in navigation and fishing. Storage of groundwater is estimated to be about (900) billion meters utilized in irrigation purposes and civil usages.